Cognition and emerging adulthood: human development (2023)

beginning of maturity

Historically, early adulthood has been thought to last approximately from age 18 (late adolescence) to age 40 or 45 (early middle age). More recently, developmental researchers have divided this 25-year period into two distinct phases: emerging adulthood, followed by early adulthood. Although these age periods vary in their physical, cognitive, and social development, generally the period from 18 to 40 years of age is a time of peak physical ability and the emergence of more mature cognitive development, financial independence, and the building of strong relationships.

Defined emerging adulthood

beginning of maturityand thePeriod between late teens and early twenties; 18 to 25 years old, although some researchers have included up to 29 years old in their definitions (Society for the Study of Emerging Adulthood, 2016). Jeffrey Arnett (2000) argues that emerging adulthood is neither adolescence nor early adulthood. People of this age have left behind the relative dependencies of childhood and adolescence but have not yet taken on the responsibilities of adulthood. "Emerging adulthood is a time in life when many different directions are still possible, when little is certain about the future, when the scope for independent exploration of life's possibilities is greater for most than anyone other stage of life. naturally” (Arnett, 2000, p. 469). Arnett identified five characteristics of emerging adulthood that distinguish it from adolescence and young adulthood (Arnett, 2006).

  1. And theera of identity finding. In 1950, Erik Erikson suggested that during adolescence people struggled with the question of identity. But Erikson (1968) also commented on a twentieth-century trend towards “prolonged adolescence” in industrial societies. Today, most identity development occurs in the late teens and early 20s rather than the teens. During emerging adulthood, people explore their career choices and ideas about intimate relationships, laying the groundwork for adulthood.
  2. Arnett also described this period as theera of instability(Arnett, 2000; Arnett, 2006). Exploitation breeds insecurity and instability. Aspiring adults are more likely than other age groups to change jobs, relationships, and places of residence.
  3. This is also theHonor des Selbstfokus. Being egocentric is not the same as being "egocentric". Adolescents are more self-centered than aspiring adults. Arnett reports that during his research he found that aspiring adults are very considerate of the feelings of others, especially their parents. They are now beginning to see their parents as people and not just as parents, which most teenagers fail to do (Arnett, 2006). However, aspiring adults are becoming more self-focused as they realize that they have few obligations to others and that this is the time to do whatever they want in life.
  4. This is also theage of feeling in the middle.When asked whether they feel like adults, more young people aged 18 to 25 answer “yes and no” than young people or adults over 25 (Arnett, 2001). Most aspiring adults have gone through the changes of puberty, are generally out of high school, and many have also moved out of the family home. As a result, they no longer feel as dependent as they did when they were young. However, they may still be financially dependent on their parents to some extent and may not have fully achieved some of the indicators of adulthood, such as others. Not surprisingly, Arnett found that 60% of 18-25 year olds felt they were adults in some ways but not in others (Arnett, 2001).
  5. Emerging maturity is theAge of Possibilities. It's a time of optimism as more and more 18-25 year olds feel they will one day get to where they want to be in life. Arnett (2000, 2006) suggests that this optimism stems from the fact that these dreams have yet to be tested. For example, it's easier to believe that you'll eventually find your soulmate if you haven't been in a serious relationship yet. It can also be a chance to change direction for those whose life has been difficult. The experiences of children and young people are influenced by the decisions and decisions of their parents. If the parents are dysfunctional, there is little the child can do about it. However, in emerging adulthood, people can leave and move on. You have a chance to transform your life and move away from unhealthy environments. Even those who had happy and fulfilling lives as children now have the opportunity to become independent as they mature and make their own decisions about the direction they want their lives to take.

Socioeconomic Class and Emerging Adulthood.The emerging adulthood theory was originally criticized for reflecting only upper-middle class young adults attending college in the United States, and not those who are working class or poor (Arnett, 2016). As a result, Arnett reviewed the results of the 2012 Clark University Emerging Adult Survey, whose participants were demographically similar to the US population. The results mainly showed agreement between aspects of the theory, including positive and negative perceptions of the period and views on education, work, love, sex and marriage. Two significant differences were found, the first being that adults from lower socioeconomic groups identified more negativity in their emotional lives, including higher levels of depression. Second, those in the lowest socioeconomic group were more likely to agree that they could not find enough financial support to get the education they felt they needed. Overall, Arnett concluded that emerging maturity occurs whenever there is a time interval between late adolescence and entry into adult roles, but he also recognized that social, cultural, and historical contexts matter.

Intercultural Variations.The five traits proposed in the theory of emerging adulthood were originally based on surveys of Americans between the ages of 18 and 29 from a variety of races, social classes, and geographic regions (Arnett, 2004, 2016). To what extent is the emerging adulthood theory internationally applicable?

The answer to this question depends a lot on what part of the world you are looking at. Demographers make a useful distinction between the developing countries, which make up the majority of the world's population, and the economically developed countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, South Korea, South , Australia and New Zealand. The current population of the OECD countries (also called industrialized countries) is 1.2 billion, about 18% of the total world population (United Nations Development Programme, 2011). The rest of the population lives in developing countries, which have much lower average incomes, much lower average levels of education, and much higher incidences of disease, disease, and premature death. Consider emerging adulthood in other OECD countries, as little is known about the experiences of 18-25 year olds in developing countries.

The same demographic changes described above for the United States have also occurred in other OECD countries. This applies to increased participation in post-secondary education, as well as rising median ages of marriage and parenthood (UNData, 2010). However, there are also significant differences in how emerging adulthood is experienced across OECD countries. Europe is the region where coming of age is the longest and most peaceful. The median age for marriage and parenthood is almost 30 in most European countries (Douglass, 2007). Europe today is the site of the richest, most generous and most egalitarian societies in the world, indeed in human history (Arnett, 2007). Governments pay for higher education, help young people find jobs, and provide generous unemployment benefits for those who cannot find work. In Northern Europe, many governments also offer housing subsidies. Harnessing these advantages, the rising adults in European societies are gradually reaching adulthood in their twenties while enjoying travel and leisure time with friends.

Life for emerging adults in developed Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea is somewhat similar to life for emerging adults in Europe, and in some respects is notably different. Like European emerging adults, Asian emerging adults tend to marry and become parents around the age of 30 (Arnett, 2011). Like emerging adults in Europe, emerging adults in Asia in Japan and South Korea enjoy the benefits of living in affluent societies with generous welfare systems that support the transition to adulthood, including free higher education and significant unemployment.

In other respects, however, the experience of emerging adulthood in Asian OECD countries differs markedly from that in Europe. Europe has a long history of individualism, and today's emerging adults carry that legacy with them in their focus on self-expression and leisure in emerging adulthood. In contrast, Asian cultures share a common cultural history that emphasizes collectivism and family commitments.

Cognition and emerging adulthood: human development (1)

Although Asian cultures have become more individualistic in recent decades as a result of globalization, the legacy of collectivism lingers in the lives of emerging adults. They pursue, like their American and European peers, the exploration of identity and self-development during adolescence, but within narrower limits set by their sense of obligation to others, particularly their parents (Phinney & Baldelomar, 2011). For example, aspiring adults in the United States and Europe rank among the most important criteria for becoming an adult, financial independence among the most important characteristics of adulthood. In contrast, aspiring adults from Asian cultures particularly emphasize the ability to provide financial support to parents as one of the most important criteria (Arnett, 2003; Nelson, Badger, & Wu, 2004). This sense of family obligation can to some extent reduce their exploration of identity in emerging adults, and compared to emerging adults in the west, they are more attentive to their parents' wishes, what to study, what job to take and where to go, them have to learn. live (Rosenberger, 2007).

When does adult life begin?According to Rankin and Kenyon (2008), in earlier years the process of coming of age was more characterized by rites of passage. Marriage and parenthood were considered by many to be the gateway to adulthood. However, these role transitions are no longer considered important characteristics of adulthood (Arnett, 2001). Economic and social changes have led to more young adults entering college (Rankin & Kenyon, 2008) and delaying marriage and having children (Arnett & Taber, 1994; Laursen & Jensen-Campbell, 1999). Self-responsibility are key characteristics of adulthood in Western culture across all ages (Arnett, 2001) and ethnic groups (Arnett, 2004).

(Video) Emerging Adulthood: Intro Psychology, Development #8

Rankin and Kenyon (2008) examined how college students perceive adulthood and found that some students still regard rites of passage as important markers. College students who place more importance on role transition markers such as parenting and marriage, were in a fraternity/sisterhood, were traditionally old (18–25), were from an ethnic minority, had traditional marital status (i.e., not living together), or belonged to a religious organization , especially for men. These results support the view that people with collectivist or more traditional values ​​attach more importance to role transitions as a mark of adulthood. In contrast, older college students and those living in cohabitation do not value role transitions as much as traits of adulthood.

Forms of housing for young adults.In 2014, for the first time in over 130 years, adults aged 18–34 were more likely to live with their parents than with a spouse or partner in their own household (Fry, 2016). The current trend is that young Americans are not choosing to settle down romantically before the age of 35. Since the 1880s, cohabitation with a romantic partner has been the most common way of life among young adults. In 1960, 62% of Americans ages 18 to 34 lived with a spouse or partner in their own home, while only 20% lived with their parents.

Cognition and emerging adulthood: human development (2)

In 2014, 31.6% of first-time adults lived with their spouse or partner in their own home, while 32.1% lived with their parents. Another 14% of early adults lived alone, were single parents, or lived with one or more roommates. The remaining 22% lived with another family member (e.g. grandparents, brother-in-law or siblings), a non-relative or in shared accommodation (e.g. student dormitories). Comparing races, 36% of Black and Hispanic young adults lived at home, while 30% of White young adults lived at home.

As can be seen in Figure 20.2, gender differences in living conditions were also observed, with boys living with their parents more often than girls. In 2014, 35% of young people lived with their parents, while 28% lived with their spouse or partner in their own home. Young women were more likely to live with their spouse or partner (35%) than with their parents (29%). In addition, more young women (16%) than young men (13%) lived without a spouse or partner, mainly because women are more likely to be single mothers living with their children. Finally, boys (25%) were more likely than girls (19%) to live with another family member, a non-relative, or in some form of shared accommodation (Fry, 2016).

What are some factors that help explain these changes in living conditions?First, young adults are increasingly delaying marriage or choosing not to marry or cohabit. Lack of employment and lower wages were particularly conducive to men living with their fathers. Working men are less likely to live at home. Young men's wages (adjusted for inflation) have been falling since 1970 and correlate with increases in young men living with their fathers. The recent recession and recovery (since 2007) has also contributed to the increase in young adults living at home. College enrollments increased during the recession, further increasing the first adults to live at home. However, once the first adults graduate from college, they are more likely to start families of their own (Fry, 2016).

Cognitive development in early childhood

Adolescent adulthood brings with it the consolidation of formal operational thinking and the continuing integration of those parts of the brain that serve emotions, social processes, and planning and problem-solving. As a result, hasty decisions and risky behaviors decrease rapidly in early adulthood. An increase in epistemic cognition is also observed as metacognition, or thinking about thinking, continues to increase in young adults, particularly in young adults continuing their schooling.

Perrys Plan.One of the earliest theories of cognitive development in early adulthood came from William Perry (1970), who was a graduate student at Harvard University. Perry noted that cognition tended to shift as students progressed through collegedualism(absolute, black and white, right and wrong thinking).Variety(while recognizing that some problems are solvable and some answers are not yet known).relativism(Understand the importance of the specific context of knowledge - everything is relative to other factors). Similar to Piaget's formal operational thinking in adolescence, this shift in thinking in early adulthood is influenced by educational experiences.

Table 8.1 Perry scheme steps

PracticeSummary of position on the Perry schemeSimple example
the authorities know"The tutor knows what is right and wrong"
The real authorities are right, the others are scammers"My tutor doesn't know what is right and wrong, but the others do"
There are some uncertainties and authorities are working to find out the truth."My tutors don't know, but someone out there is trying to find out"
(a) Everyone is entitled to their own opinion“Different teachers think differently”
(b) The authorities do not want correct answers. They want us to think a certain way"There is an answer that tutors want and we must find it"
Everything is relative, but not equally valid."There are no right and wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers may be better than others"
You have to make your own decisions."It's not important what the tutor thinks, but what I think"
first appointment"For this particular subject, I think..."
Various obligations"For these subjects, I think..."
Believe in your own values, respect others, be willing to learn"I know what I believe and what I believe to be valid, others may think differently, and I'm willing to reconsider my opinion."

Adapted from Lifespan Development by Lumen Learning

Some researchers argue that a qualitative shift in cognitive development occurs in some emerging adults in their 20s and 20s. As evidence, they cite studies documenting the progressive integration and focussing of brain functions and studies that suggest this developmental phase often represents a tipping point when young adults engage in risky behaviors (e.g., an unfocused lifestyle, for example, switching from job to job or from relationship to relationship) seem to "wake up" and take responsibility for their own development. It is a common point for young adults to make decisions about graduating or returning to school, and making and obeying decisions about vocation, relationships, living conditions, and lifestyle. Indeed, many young adults can recall these turning points as a moment when they could suddenly "see" where they were going (i.e., the likely outcomes of their risky behavior or apathy) and actively chose to pursue a higher path.

Optional Reading: Current Trends in Post-Secondary Education

(Video) Chapter 18 Cognitive development in emerging adulthood

According to the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) (2016a, 2016b, 2016c, 2016d) in the United States:

  • 84% of 18-24 year olds and 88% of over 25 year olds have a high school diploma or equivalent
  • 36% of 18-24 year olds and 7% of 25-49 year olds attend college
  • 59% of those over 25 have a university degree
  • 32.5% of those over 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher, with slightly more women (33%) than men (32%) having a college degree (Ryan & Bauman, 2016).

College graduation rates have grown more slowly in the United States than in many other countries in recent years (OCED, 2014). This could be because tuition fees in the US are higher than most other countries.

In 2017, 65% of graduates from nonprofit private and public colleges had student loan debt and owed an average of $28,650 nationwide, down 1% from 2016 (The Institute for College Access & Success (TICAS), 2018).

According to the latest TICAS annual report, the debt ratio varied widely both between states and between universities. Post-closing debt ranged from $18,850 in Utah to $38,500 in Connecticut. Low-debt countries are mainly in the West and high-debt countries are in the Northeast. In recent years there have been concerns about students carrying more debt and being more likely to default when attending for-profit institutions. In 2016, nonprofit students borrowed an average of $39,900, 41% more than nonprofit students did that year. Additionally, 30% of students attending for-profit colleges default on their government student loans. In contrast, the dropout rate of those who have visited public institutions is only 4% (TICAS, 2018).

College student debt has become a key policy issue at both the state and federal levels, and some states have taken steps to increase spending and subsidies to help students with college costs. However, 15% of university debts in 2017 were owed to private creditors (TICAS, 2018). These debts have fewer consumer protections, fewer payment options, and typically trade at a higher interest rate. See Table 7.1 for a comparison of six US Treasury bonds.

Postgraduate studies:Larger student debt actually occurs at the graduate level (Kreighbaum, 2019). In 2019, the highest average debts were concentrated in the medical fields. Median-median debt for included graduate programs:

  • $42,335 for a master's degree
  • $95,715 for a PhD
  • $141,000 for a professional degree

Globally, more than 80% of adults with a tertiary degree are employed, compared to just over 70% of those with a secondary degree or equivalent and just 60% of those without a secondary degree (OECD, 2015). Those who have a college degree will earn more over the course of their lives. Additionally, the benefits of a college education go beyond employment and finance. The OECD found that more educated adults around the world are more likely to volunteer, feel more in control of their lives and are therefore more interested in the world around them. Studies of US college students show that they gain a stronger identity and become more socially competent and less dogmatic and ethnocentric than non-college students (Pascarella, 2006).

Is College Worth the Time and Investment?College is certainly a sizeable investment each year, with the financial burden being borne by the students and their families in the US and mostly by the government in many other countries. However, the benefit to the individual and society far outweighs the initial cost. As Figure 7.18 shows, in the US, those with the highest degrees earn the highest incomes and have the lowest unemployment rates.


Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging Adult: A Theory of Development from Late Adolescence to the Early Twenties.American psychologist, 55, 469-480.

Arnett, J.J. (2001). Conceptions of transitions into adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence to middle age.Adult Development Journal, 8,133-143.

Arnett, J.J. (2003). Perceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups.New directions for the development of children and adolescents, 100, 63–75.

(Video) Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Arnett, J.J. (2004). Perceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups. In J.J. Arnett & N. Galambos (eds.),Cultural perceptions of the transition to adulthood: New pathways in child and adolescent development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Arnett, J.J. (2006). The Youth of G. Stanley Hall: Brilliance and Absurdity.history of psychology, 9,186-197.

Arnett, J.J. (2011). Emerging Adult(s): The cultural psychology of a new phase of life. In L. A. Jensen (ed.),Building bridges between cultural and developmental psychology: New syntheses in theory, research and politics(S. 255–275). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Arnett, J.J. (2016). Does the emerging theory of adulthood apply to all social classes? National data on an ongoing problem.growing adulthood, 4(4), 227-235.

Arnett, J.J. & Taber, S. (1994). Terminable and Endless Adolescence: When Does Adolescence End?Magazine for youth and youth, 23, 517–537.

Arnett, JJ (2007). The long, slippery road: growing up in Europe today.Current story, 106, 130-136.

Basseches, M. (1984).Dialectical thinking and adult education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub.

Douglass, CB (2007). From Duty to Desire: Emerging Maturity in Europe und seine Folgen.Perspectives on child development, 1, 101–108.

Erikson, E.H. (1950).childhood and society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York: Norton.

Erikson, E.H. (1968).Identity: youth and crisis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New York: Norton.

Fry, R. (2016).For the first time in modern times, living with parents has outperformed other types of housing for 18 to 34 year olds.Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. 34 anos/st_2016-05-24_young-adults-life-03/

(Video) 8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

Fry, R. (2018).Millennials are the largest generation of the US workforce.Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Recuperado de:

Laursen, B., & Jensen-Campbell, L.A. (1999). The nature and functions of social exchange in adolescent love relationships. In W. Furman, B.B. Brown and C. Feiring (eds.),The development of romantic relationships in adolescence(S. 50–74). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nelson, L.J., Badger, S., & Wu, B. (2004). The Impact of Culture on Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students.International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 26–36.

Perry, W.G., Jr. (1970). Forms of ethical and intellectual development in college: an overview. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Phinney, J.S. & Baldelomar, O.A. (2011). Identity development in multiple cultural contexts. In L. A. Jensen (ed.),Building bridges between cultural and developmental psychology: New syntheses in theory, research and politics(S. 161-186). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Rankin, LA & Kenyon, D.B. (2008). Defining Role Transitions as Indicators of Adulthood in the 21st Century. Who are you?Journal of Adult Development, 15(2), 87-92. doi: 10.1007/s10804-007-9035-2

Rosenberger, N. (2007). Rethinking Emerging Adulthood in Japan: Perspectives from Long-Term Single Women.Perspectives on child development, 1, 92-95.

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(Video) Early adulthood-Physical, cognitive, social and emotional development (CH-03)

"Development Across the Lifespan: A Psychological Perspective, 2nd Edition"by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under aCC-BY-NC-SA-3.0

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What is the main cognitive development of emerging adulthood? ›

Emerging adulthood brings with it the consolidation of formal operational thought, and the continued integration of the parts of the brain that serve emotion, social processes, and planning and problem solving.

How does cognitive development change during adulthood? ›

With advancing age, healthy adults typically exhibit decreases in performance across many different cognitive abilities such as memory, processing speed, spatial ability, and abstract reasoning.

What key factors are important during emerging adulthood? ›

Emerging adults share the five characteristics of self-focus, instability, identity explorations, feeling in-between, and a sense of possibilities. Emerging adulthood takes place across racial, cultural, and socioeconomic groups, although the experience of emerging adulthood varies among groups.

What are the most important aspects of early adulthood emerging adulthood? ›

Five features make emerging adulthood distinctive: identity explorations, instability, self-focus, feeling in-between adolescence and adulthood, and a sense of broad possibilities for the future.

Why is cognitive development important for adults? ›

Cognitive Development

Move into adult roles and responsibilities and may learn a trade, work, and/or pursue higher education. Fully understand abstract concepts and be aware of consequences and personal limitations. Identify career goals and prepare to achieve them.

What are the cognitive stages of development? ›

These stages are:
  • Sensorimotor stage (0–2 years old)
  • Preoperational stage (2–7 years old)
  • Concrete operational stage (7–11 years old)
  • Formal operational stage (11 years old through adulthood)
May 3, 2021

What affects your cognitive development? ›

Children's cognitive development is affected by several types of factors including: (1) biological (e.g., child birth weight, nutrition, and infectious diseases) [6, 7], (2) socio-economic (e.g., parental assets, income, and education) [8], (3) environmental (e.g., home environment, provision of appropriate play ...

What causes cognitive development? ›

One is that children develop cognitive skills largely as the result of cultural, and particularly of linguistic, experiences; the other that these skills are the product mainly of internal intellectual conflict and of the consequent disequilibrium which stems from the conflict.

Does cognitive development continue in adulthood? ›

However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several “neo-Piagetian” theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development.

What is the biggest challenge for emerging adulthood? ›

Emerging adulthood is a period of development between the ages of 18 to 25 years which is distinct from adolescence and later stages of adulthood. Five major struggles occur during emerging adulthood: identity, instability, being self-focused, feeling in-between, and new possibilities.

What is the purpose of emerging adulthood? ›

Emerging adulthood is a time between adolescents' reliance on parents and adults' long-term commitments in love and work, and during these years, emerging adults focus on themselves as they develop the knowledge, skills, and self-understanding they will need for adult life.

What happens during emerging adulthood? ›

Experiences Shared by Emerging Adults

Identity exploration: answering the question “who am I?” and trying out various options, especially in love and work. Instability, in love, work, and place of residence. Self-Focus, as obligations to others reach a lifespan low.

How is emerging adulthood impacted by culture? ›

Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non- Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on practices that lead to an earlier transition to adulthood.

What is the most important stage of cognitive development? ›

Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).

What is the most important thing about cognitive development? ›

Why is Cognitive Development important? Cognitive development provides children with the means of paying attention to thinking about the world around them.

What is an example of cognitive development? ›

An example of cognitive development is the emergence of language skills in children in the first 3 years of age. Within the first year of life, children begin to understand the meaning of words, the definition of concepts, and can engage in verbal communication with others.

What is the importance of cognitive skills? ›

Cognitive skills are extremely important to develop during the early years of life as they help your brain think, read, learn, reason, pay attention and remember. These skills help process incoming information and distribute it to the appropriate areas of the brain.

What's the meaning of cognitive? ›

: of, relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity (such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering)

What is the conclusion of cognitive development? ›

Conclusion. Research into cognitive development has shown us that minds don't just form according to a uniform blueprint or innate intellect, but through a combination of influencing factors. For instance, if we want our kids to have a strong grasp of language we could concentrate on phonemic awareness early on.

How does cognitive development affect behavior? ›

Cognitive development means how children think, explore and figure things out. It is the development of knowledge, skills, problem solving and dispositions, which help children to think about and understand the world around them.

How do cognitive factors affect human behavior? ›

Cognitive factors refer to characteristics of the person that affect performance and learning. These factors serve to modulate performance such that it may improve or decline. These factors involve cognitive functions like attention, memory, and reasoning (Danili & Reid, 2006).

What is cognitive development behavior? ›

Cognitive development means the development of the ability to think and reason. Children ages 6 to 12, usually think in concrete ways (concrete operations). This can include things like how to combine, separate, order, and transform objects and actions.

What is the relationship of human and cognitive development? ›

Cognitive development is the process by which human beings acquire, organize, and learn to use knowledge. This article discusses two aspects of cognitive development: 'what develops,' or the content of knowledge, and 'how knowledge develops.

What does cognitive mean in development? ›

The term cognitive development refers to the process of growth and change in intellectual/mental abilities such as thinking, reasoning and understanding. It includes the acquisition and consolidation of knowledge.

What happens to cognition with age? ›

Cognitive change as a normal process of aging has been well documented in the scientific literature. Some cognitive abilities, such as vocabulary, are resilient to brain aging and may even improve with age. Other abilities, such as conceptual reasoning, memory, and processing speed, decline gradually over time.

Why is emerging adulthood a high stress stage of development? ›

It is a period of heightened instability in which young people experience a series of loving relationships and frequent job changes before making lasting decisions [1]. The important changes of this period generate instability and uncertainty, and a significant mental health risk [1,7].

How do you deal with emerging adults? ›

  1. Try not to offer advice about higher education, career directions or love interests. ...
  2. Be curious about your emerging adult, but avoid interfering. ...
  3. Support them in finding organizational systems that work for them. ...
  4. Help them learn how to talk to those in authority. ...
  5. Don't rescue your emerging adult.
Feb 9, 2018

Why is early adulthood development important? ›

Yet by the end of early adulthood, most of us will have accomplished the important developmental tasks of becoming more autonomous, taking care of ourselves and even others, committing to relationships and jobs/careers, getting married, raising families, and becoming part of our communities.

What is the adulthood stage of human development? ›

adulthood, the period in the human lifespan in which full physical and intellectual maturity have been attained. Adulthood is commonly thought of as beginning at age 20 or 21 years. Middle age, commencing at about 40 years, is followed by old age at about 60 years.

Which of the following is true about emerging adulthood? ›

Answer and Explanation: Emerging adulthood typically A) occurs between the ages of 18 and 25. The field of emerging adulthood has emerged because young adults are delaying marriage and focusing more on their careers and education.

Which do you think is the most important step towards adulthood why? ›

Which do you think is the most important step toward adulthood? Why? Ans. Having an independent mind free from any outside influence is the most important step towards adulthood.

What makes people grow and become adult? ›

According to a new study by Allstate/National Journal Heartland Monitor Poll, the achievements that typically make someone an adult are job stability, home ownership, financial planning and having a family, the Atlantic reported.

What are the main areas of cognitive development? ›

Piaget proposed four major stages of cognitive development, and called them (1) sensorimotor intelligence, (2) preoperational thinking, (3) concrete operational thinking, and (4) formal operational thinking. Each stage is correlated with an age period of childhood, but only approximately.

What are the main aspects of cognitive development? ›

Cognitive development is how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of their world through the relations of genetic and learning factors. There are four stages to cognitive information development. They are, reasoning, intelligence, language, and memory.

What is the most important cognitive change in adolescence? ›

Adolescence marks the beginning development of more complex thinking processes (also called formal logical operations). This time can include abstract thinking the ability to form their own new ideas or questions. It can also include the ability to consider many points of view and compare or debate ideas or opinions.

What are the four aspects of cognitive development during adulthood? ›

Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence , reasoning, language development , and memory.

What is the most important influence on cognitive development? ›

Cognitive development is influenced by how a child approaches learning as well as his or her biological makeup and the environment. A child's background knowledge, or knowledge base, also affects the way a child thinks.

What is the most important cognitive skill? ›

One of the most important cognitive skills is attention, which enables us to process the necessary information from our environment. We usually process such information through our senses, stored memories, and other cognitive processes. Lack of attention inhibits and reduces our information processing systems.

What are some cognitive changes as we age? ›

We develop many thinking abilities that appear to peak around age 30 and, on average, very subtly decline with age. These age-related declines most commonly include overall slowness in thinking and difficulties sustaining attention, multitasking, holding information in mind and word-finding.

How can you describe the cognitive development of an adolescent? ›

It is the transformation in how your child can think — or cognitive development. Cognitive development is critical in preparing young people to be able to manage complexity, make judgments, and plan for the future. Adolescents whose thinking is well-developed will be successful and prepared to lead us forward.

What cognitive change is most likely to happen in late adulthood? ›

Memory. One of the most common cognitive complaints among older adults is change in memory. Indeed, as a group older adults do not perform as well as younger adults on a variety of learning and memory tests.

What are the three main aspects of cognition? ›

Three aspects of cognitive development☆

Such differences were sought in three domains: existing knowledge about the problems, ability to acquire new information about them, and process-level differences underlying developmental changes in the first two areas.


1. Cognitive Development in Emerging and Early Adulthood Cognitive Development, Lifespan Psychology
(Psychology Lab)
2. The Growth of Knowledge: Crash Course Psychology #18
3. 13.1 Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
(Professor Galvan)
4. Emerging Adulthood: Cognitive Development -Chapter 18
(roberta lavin)
5. Developmental Psychology - Cognitive - Young Adulthood - CH10
(R. J. Birmingham)
6. Early Adulthood
(Monica Melgar)
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