Scilite | Article - READ-COGvid: A database of reading and media habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain [...] (2023)

Scilite | Article - READ-COGvid: A database of reading and media habits during the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain [...] (1)

READ-COGvid: A database on reading and media habits during the confinement by COVID-19 in Spain and Italy

,Barbara Arfe,Vincent Avila,Raquel Cerdan,Raquel de Sixto,Pablo Delgado,Immaculate Fajardo,Antonio Ferrer,Maria Garcia,Laura Gil,

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Abstract:The COVID-19 outbreak has seriously affected the populations of Europe in general and Spain and Italy in particular. As of May 25, 2020, both countries accounted for 17.3% of COVID-19 related deaths and 8.5% of infections worldwide (EU, 2020). The severity of the situation led governments to enact extremely restrictive legislation in early March, forcing the vast majority of the population into strict lockdown. In this context, we examine how adults in Spain and Italy have adapted their reading and media habits. Several large studies of adult reading habits have identified five main reading activities and goals: reading for pleasure, reading study or work documents, reading the news to keep up-to-date, reading to connect with others, and sharing reading with others. children (see Skalen & Rhee, 2001; Mol et al., 2008; Torppa et al., 2020). The study of adult reading habits has attracted much attention due to its relationship to psychological, emotional, and health conditions (see Marshall, 2020, for a review). In fact, reading for pleasure has a clear impact on the sociocognitive well-being of adults (Mumper & Gerrig, 2017). However, little is known about how these habits are changing and affected by collective crises that leave citizens locked in their homes. An exception is the study of news reading behavior in times of crisis. Prolonged exposure to news related to community crises (eg, the 9/11 terrorist attacks) resulted in increased anxiety and maladaptive health-protective and help-seeking behaviors (see Garfin et al., 2020, for a review). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated changes in reading habits due to a collective crisis. Strict confinement can affect people's free time, which will set the stage for possible changes in reading habits. However, such changes may depend on the social characteristics of people (eg, living alone or with minors) or individual (eg, stress, motivation to read). In the present work, we present the READ-COGvid database composed of responses from 4,800 people from Spain and Italy. While we focus on leisure and reading habits at different times (before lockdown, just after lockdown, and after 1 month of lockdown), we also collect many other indices (sociodemographic, psychological, Yrelated to reading) that might be of interest to researchers interested in adult reading and related fields (eg, communication research, cognitive sciences, social sciences, health sciences, cross-cultural studies). The READ-COGvid database is freely available to all users at: The READ-COGvid survey was developed by the Spanish and Italian teams that wrote the manuscript. First we wrote and agreed on a Spanish version. Next, three team members with knowledge of both languages ​​(two Italian and one Spanish) prepared the translation from Spanish to Italian using 'equivalence' as the main translation technique. That is, we have chosen certain linguistic forms in Italian that have the same intended meaning as in the original Spanish. For the items of the anxiety scale, the translation procedure differs slightly since we have taken the items directly from the standardized versions in Spanish (Escrivá et al., 2004) and Italian (Albiero et al., 2006). The Spanish survey was launched on April 11, 2020, 1 week after Spain reached its peak of COVID-19 deaths on April 3, 2020, and closed on April 19, 2020. The Italian survey was launched on April 15, 2020. April 2020 and was available until April 24, 2020, 2 weeks after the peak of COVID-19 deaths in the last week of March. In both countries, the READ-COGvid survey data on reading habits were collected using non-probability sampling. In particular, an unrestricted self-selection survey was used (Fielding et al., 2017). We use this strategy to facilitate access to populations that would otherwise have been difficult to reach during lockdown. In particular, we have posted a link to the survey on social media and sent links to the survey to educational associations, students from various universities in Spain and Italy, and friends and family with a request to share them. The responses were collected through the LimeSurvey tool and the data was stored on the servers of the University of Valencia in accordance with GDPR compliance. The study was designed in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Prior to participation, the participants were informed about the objectives of the study and the ethical guidelines followed in the design and processing of data. No data was collected that could allow a third party to determine the identity of the respondents. Participants were asked to consent to data analysis prior to participating in the study. A total of 11,634 people in Spain and 2,175 in Italy opened the survey, but only 4,181 in Spain and 837 in Italy completed all the questions. Despite our best efforts, many potential respondents abandoned the online questionnaire before completing it completely. However, it should be noted that the use of web surveys generally results in low response rates. Manfreda et al. (2008) conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies that examined differences in response rates between web surveys and other survey modes and estimated that the average response rate for web surveys was approximately 11% lower. In any case, the specific response rate of a survey study is related to a number of variables, such as the specific topic, the length of the survey, the provision of incentives, the use of a mixed-mode survey design, or the length of the survey. use of previous surveys. notifications and reminders (eg, Fan and Yan, 2010). For our study, perhaps a shorter survey (participants lasted an average of 13.8 minutes) or incentives to participate would have increased the completion rate. From the full reports, 69 cases in Spain and 12 in Italy who did not consent to have their data analysed, as well as 87 cases not living in Spain and 20 cases not living in Italy, were excluded. In addition, we also excluded 2 participants for showing an inconsistent response pattern and 7 apparent duplicates in the Spanish sample (0 in Italy). After the exclusions, the final sample consisted of 4,013 respondents for the Spanish survey and 805 for the Italian survey. As shown in Table 1, the final sample was predominantly female, middle-aged, and well-educated.tabla 1. Descriptive statistics (N, sex, age range, occupation and degree) of the Spanish and Italian samples. Considering that the current survey used a convenient sampling technique and therefore the results cannot be directly generalized to the population (Fielding et al., 2017), post-stratification is recommended as a method to adjust the weights in order to that underrepresented groups account for the intended population. To do this, we compute age- and gender-adjusted weights. To do this, we first calculated the population reference values ​​(that is, frequencies by age group and sex) provided by the Spanish (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2020) and Italian (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2020) National Institutes of Statistics. Second, we calculated the observed frequencies by age group and sex in the READ-COGvid database for each country. Next, we calculate the value of the weight as W = (nPAG/ norteS) × (NS/ nortePAG), wherePAGand NSare the frequencies by age group and sex in the population and in the sample, respectively, NSis the sample size and NPAGthe size of the population is Participants repeated the scales on reading and media habits three times. First, they remember the last time they spent a few days at home (for example, a holiday weekend). Second, they remember the first two weeks of detention. Finally, they thought about the current period after a few weeks of confinement. This scale assessed how much daily time participants spend on various reading activities: reading for pleasure, reading for work or study, reading the news to keep up-to-date, and social reading (Scalen & Rhee, 2001; Torppa et al., 2020). Participants who indicated that at least one child lived at home were also asked how much time they spent reading with their son/daughter (Mol et al., 2008). For each reading activity, they responded using the following scale: none, ~30 min per day, 1, 2, 3, 4 h per day. This scale should measure the use of reading media. This scale was incorporated into the reading frequency questionnaire. For each type, participants were asked to what extent they use print and digital reading media (computer, tablet, or mobile phone). They responded on a 5-point Likert scale from Never (1) to Always (5). This scale rated the daily time spent watching television or streaming video. In particular, we asked respondents how much time they spend watching series, movies, documentaries, and other programs each day. For each type, the participants responded using the scale used in the reading frequency questionnaire. This 4-point scale is designed as an indicator of participants' perceived reading comprehension. The participants indicated on a 5-point Likert scale from "not at all agree" to "strongly agree" if they had difficulties in understanding the reading of texts in different formats: magazines, instruction manuals for electrical appliances, administrative forms, schedules or maps of buses or subways.” The scale was adopted from the original instrument validated in Danish (Elbro et al., 1995, 2011). The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable, Spanish sample: ω=0.74, Italian sample: ω=0.77 (The omega indices used in this study were made using a polychoric correlation matrix, Gadermann et al., 2012) . This 5-point scale was developed to measure respondents' willingness to rate information about COVID-19 when reading (cf. Bråten et al., 2018). Participants reported how often they displayed different appraisal behaviors when reading about COVID-19: paying attention to information from the author, paying attention to information from the source, comparing sources, dismissing unreliable sources, and reading expert sources. Participants used a 5-point Likert scale from Never (1) to Always (5). Internal consistency was good, Spanish sample: ω=0.80, Italian sample: ω=0.80. We measured respondents' perceived difficulties in concentrating on tasks using two items from the Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) developed by Mrazek et al. was developed and validated. (2013). The MWQ consists of five items on the Likert scale that measure the respondent's tendency to ramble. We selected two items related to general situations: (1) “I have difficulty concentrating on simple and repetitive tasks” and (2) “I do things without paying my full attention.” Respondents responded by referring to the three terms of incarceration evaluated, using a 5-point Likert Scale from Never (1) to Always (5). The mean reliability of this measure at the three times of delivery was acceptable (Spanish sample: ω = 0.79, Italian sample: ω = 0.74). We adapted the SRQ Reading Motivation Questionnaire (de Naeghel et al., 2012), which was designed to assess two autonomous types of reading motivation (intrinsic regulation, e.g., “I read because I like to read”, and identified regulation, e.g. example, "I (I read because I think reading is useful") and two controlled types of reading motivation (introjected, eg, "I read because I feel guilty if I don't", and external regulation, eg, "I read because others make me do it".) We selected 8 items from the original questionnaire, representing both extremes: 4 items on intrinsic motivation - autonomous reading motivation and 4 items on extrinsic motivation - controlled reading motivation. The items were rated on a scale Five-point Likert type from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).The four-item subscales in our samples had good internal consistency (Spanish sample: ω = 0.89 and ω = 0.82 for motivation internal and external c uncontrolled, respectively; Italian sample: ω = 0.88 and ω = 0.87 for internal and controlled-external motivation, respectively). external motivation). , either). The Personal Distress (PD) subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (Davis, 1980) was used to assess participants' distress during confinement. This is a 5-point and 7-point Likert scale that measures feelings of anxiety and self-control in stressful situations. Respondents rated statements such as “I feel anxious and uncomfortable in emergency situations” from 0 (does not describe me well) to 4 (describes me well). We used the validated adaptations in Spanish (Escrivá, et al., 2004) and Italian (Albiero et al., 2006). The PD scale showed good internal reliability (Spanish sample: ω=0.82; Italian sample: ω=0.82). Respondents provided their gender, age in years, ZIP code, highest educational level, and occupation. Those who said they worked for someone else or self-employed were asked about their employment situation during the lockdown. Participants reported: (a) number of people living in the household; if (b) it was greater than one, (c) the number of children in the home and their ages, and (d) if people with disabilities lived in the home. Students were asked to indicate their average grade for the last semester or grading period. The Spanish grading system uses a 0-10 point scale (5 pass), while the Italian system uses a 0-30 point scale (18-25 pass) at university and a 0-10 point scale (6 -6.5 approved). in primary and secondary. Participants were asked whether or not they had a digital device for their exclusive use before delivery and ~1 month after delivery. Participants indicated on a scale of Never (1) to Always (5) the degree to which they trust various media outlets to stay informed about COVID-19. We illustrate the type of analysis that can be performed on the READ-COGVid database by identifying changes in read times. Recent evidence shows that adults gradually improved their health behaviors during the first week of confinement due to COVID-19 (López-Bueno et al., 2020). Based on this, we expected that young adults would increase their reading time for recreational reading, as this can lead to cognitive, emotional, and health benefits (Marshall, 2020). On the contrary, we did not expect any change or a shorter news reading time, as this could help reduce the negative emotional impact associated with the publication of news about collective crises (Garfin et al., 2020). To study this problem, we perform linear mixed-effects models usinglmerYem meansPackages in R (R Development Core Team, 2020) in a subsample of Hispanic young adults aged 18-29 (norte= 2009). The fixed factors were time (before vs beginning vs month), type of reading (leisure vs news vs socializing vs study/work) and gender (female vs masculine). subjects was the random effect in the model. The dependent variable was the number of reading hours per day. The results showed that women spent more time reading than men,F(1, 22293.1)= 101.743,PAG<0.001. The main effect of time was significant,F(2, 22293.1)= 245,2660,PAG< 0.001, as well as the main effect of the type of reading,F(2, 22293.1)= 2226,569,PAG<0.001. Since the three-way interaction was not significant,F(6, 22293.1)= 1,97,PAG= 0.066, significant mutual interactions were examined. gender interacts with time,F(1, 22293.1)= 3,399,PAG= 0.033, reflecting that women's advantage over men's reading time increases with time in prison. The genre also interacted with the reading style,F(3, 22293.1)= 96,523,PAG< 0.001, suggesting that gender differences in socialization were more pronounced (z= 18,758,PAG< 0.001) than the other reading categories (leisure:z= 3.098,PAG=0.002; News:z= 3,864,PAG<0.001; Student work,z= 4,641,PAG<0.001). The interaction between time and type of reading was also critically significant,F(6, 22293.1)= 26.416,PAG<0.001. This interaction showed that the restriction altered the reading habits of adults differently. With the onset of incarceration, individuals tended to consume more news than before incarceration (z= −8,288,PAG< 0.001), but this news consumption decreased to baseline levels after 1 month (onset vs. month:z= 7,063,PAG<0.001; ago vs. 1 month:z= −1,23,PAG= 0.434). At the onset of labor, people tended to read more during leisure time than before delivery (z= −14,082,PAG< 0.001) and this pattern remained stable at one month (onset vs. month:z= −0,445,PAG=0.896; ago vs. 1 month:z= −14,527,PAG<0.001). People used social media more frequently at the onset of labor than before delivery (z= −10,869,PAG<0.001). While social media use decreased after one month of incarceration compared to the beginning of incarceration (z= 4264,PAG< 0.001), was still higher than the reference value before delivery (z= −6,604,PAG<0.001). Time spent reading for study or work increased at onset compared to baseline (z= −7,422,PAG< 0.001) and increased again after 1 month in prison relative to baseline (z= −5,882,PAG< 0.001) (see Figure 1).illustration 1. Mean and 95% confidence interval of each condition for the dependent variable number of hours read. The immediate increases in all reading categories followed adaptive patterns as the restriction progressed. Compared with the first 2 weeks of incarceration, news and social reading decreased after one month of incarceration, while leisure reading remained stable and time spent reading for study/work continued to increase. Although these effects were independent of gender, women spent more time reading than men; this gender gap was more pronounced when using social networks (Tufekci, 2008). The READ-COGvid database provides a valuable tool at a unique time when millions of citizens in Spain and Italy were confined to their homes. The large sample size and the large number and variety of indices allow researchers to design their own working hypotheses in the context of psychology and linguistics. Here we discuss two examples. First, our knowledge of reading habits is based on research at specific times. Factors such as television consumption, motivation to read, reading literacy, gender or age shape adult reading behavior (Scalen & Rhee, 2001; Mokhtari et al., 2009; Applegate & Applegate, 2010; Locher & Pfost, 2019). Future research could use the READ-COGvid database to advance the field by examining the extent to which these factors modulate observed changes in reading habits during lockdown. Second, the study of critical reading has focused primarily on laboratory studies; These studies have been criticized because adopting a critical attitude towards sources is a strategic behavior that can depend to a large extent on the extent to which people perceive the situation as relevant to them (List & Alejandro, 2017). The data from the READ-COGvid database sheds light on people's critical attitude towards evaluating sources in a situation relevant to their life, and this aspect could be related to the workload, motivation and other contextual factors of the sources. participants, such as distance to epicenters of COVID-19. examined (see Pennycook et al., 2020). In short, by publishing the READ-COGvid database, we will help advance our knowledge of how people's reading and media habits are adapting during an unprecedented period of lockdown. Enriching this knowledge can help us be better prepared to make informed recommendations in similar situations in the future. The data sets generated for this study can be found in online repositories. Repository names and accession numbers can be found in the article/supplement. No ethical review or approval was required for the study in human participants in accordance with local laws and institutional requirements. Patients/participants gave their written consent to participate in this study. NS and MS-M conducted the study. PD, IF, MP-R, ER, JRoc, LS and CV performed the statistical analyses. BA, RC, PD, RD, IF, LM, MP-R, JRoc, LS, and CV wrote the manuscript. All authors made significant contributions to the study design, critically reviewed the manuscript for relevant intellectual content, and approved the submitted version. The authors state that the research was conducted without commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. 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Attention, Gossip, Facebook and MySpace.Inform. commune society11, 544–564. doi: 10.1080/13691180801999050 CrossRef Volltext | Google Scholar Keywords: reading, media, COVID-19, demotivation, critical reading, anguish , Gomez-Merino N , Janez Á , Lluch G , Maña A , Mason L , Natalizi F , Pi-Ruano M , Ramos L , Ramos M , Roca J , Rosa E , Rosales J , Rubio A , Serrano-Mendizabal M. Skrobiszewska N., Vargas C., Vergara-Martinez M. and Perea M. (2020) READ-COGvid: a database of reading habits and media during confinement by COVID-19 in Spain and Italy.Front. psychological11:575241. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575241 Received: June 23, 2020; Accepted: September 10, 2020; Published: October 19, 2020 Edited by: Reviewed by: Copyright © 2020 Salmerón, Arfé, Avila, Cerdán, De Sixte, Delgado, Fajardo, Ferrer, García, Gil, Gómez-Merino, Jáñez, Lluch, Mañá, Mason, Natalizi , Pi-Ruano, Ramos, Ramos, Roca, Rosa, Rosales, Rubio, Serrano-Mendizábal, Skrobiszewska, Vargas, Vergara-Martínez and Perea. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Use, distribution, or reproduction in other forums is permitted provided the original authors and copyright holders are credited and the original publication in this journal is cited in accordance with accepted scholarly practice. Any use, distribution or reproduction that does not comply with these conditions is not permitted. *Correspondence: Ladislao Salmerón,[Email protected]

Keywords: READING HABITS / media habits / COVID-19 / reading motivation / critical reading / anguish

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